RUNES, ALPHABET OF MYSTERY

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History Bibliography

PART 2

More than just history, this bibliography touches upon culture, anthropology, archeology, language, linguistics and other related topics pertaining to the people who used runes, and the countries in which they lived. Regrettably, my primary focus has been Vikings, but you will find a bit on the Teutons, Goths, Angle-Saxons, Celts, and Indo-Europeans. I plan to expand the bibliography as time permits.

If the title is hyperlinked, the book can be ordered from Amazon.com. Click on the hyperlinked title to be taken to Amazon.com. When possible, I've identified other sources, such as Rûna-Raven Press or Anglo-Saxon Books. I've found used copies on eBay, Half.com , Abebooks.com and Amazon.com . The older ones may be available in a large public or university library or Questia.com online library.

It has been brought to my attention that my bibliographies have been extracted verbatim by lazy college students, for use in their own term papers. Of course, it doesn't fool anyone. However, to make it a teeny bit more difficult, I've removed the publication data. They can still copy, but they'll have to do a bit more work. One does have to wonder if they've also copied the term papers.


Kalinke, Marianne E. Bridal-Quest Romance in Medieval Iceland (Islandica, 46), ISBN= 0801423562.

Kalinke, Marianne E.: The Book of Reykjaholar : The Last of the Great Medieval Legendaries,, ISBN= 0802078141.

Karsten, Rafael. The Religion of the Samel: Ancient Beliefs and Cults of the Scandinavian and Finnish Lapps. Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill. 1955.

Kelchner, Georgia Dunham: Dreams in Old Norse Literature and their Affinities in Folklore , ISBN=0848214315. An appendix contains the Icelandic texts and translations.

Kendrick, T. D.: Late Saxon and Viking Art, ISBN= 0064736113.

Kieckhefer, Richard. Magic in the Middle Ages. ISBN:= 0521312027. Covering the years c. 500 to 1500, with a chapter on antiquity, it investigates the way magic relates to the many other cultural forms of the time, such as religion and science, literature and art. tThe author shows how magic serves as a point of contact between the popular and elite classes, how the reality of magical beliefs is reflected in the fiction of the medieval literature, and how the persecution of magic and witchcraft led to changes in the law.

Kielland, Else Christie: Stave Churches and Viking Ships : Studied in the light of Egyptian-Greek methods, ISBN=8209018728.

King, Bernard: Ultima Thule: The Vanished Northern Homeland. Available through Runa Raven Press. A study of the various myths and legends concerning the "Atlantis of the North" and its place in esoteric history.

Klindt-Jensen, Ole: A History of Scandinavian Archaeology, Thames and Hudson, London, 1975

Klindt-Jensen, Ole: Viking Art (The Nordic Series, Vol. 6), ISBN= 0816609772.

Klindt-Jensen, Ole The World of the Vikings, ISBN= 0049400339

Klingaman, William: The First Century: Emperors, Gods, and Everyman, ISBN= 0060921277.. An engrossing popular history of the major events and people at the time of Jesus, the Roman Empire, and the Han Dynasty.

Krafft, S. (tr. R.I. Christopherson): Pictorial Weavings from the Viking Age, Oslo, 1956

Kristjansson, Jonas : Icelandic Manuscripts : Sagas, History, and Art, ISBN= 9979804343.

Krogh, Knud J.: Viking Greenland, The National Museum, Copenhagen.

Kuhn, Herbert: The Rock Pictures of Europe, Sidgwick and Jackson, London, 1956

LaFay, Howard: The Vikings, National Geographic, Washington, DC, 1972

Lagerlof, Selma:Scandinavian Kings and Queens : Three Stories. ISBN= 1572160233. In these stories, Lagerlof adapts stories from the bard Snorri Sturlason's "Heimskringla," focusing on the women characters.

Laing, Lloyd Robert, Jennifer Laing: Celtic Britain and Ireland, Ad 200-800: The Myth of the Dark Ages, ISBN= 0312047673.

Laing, Lloyd Robert.\, Jennifer Laing: Celtic Britain and Ireland: Art and Society, ISBN=0312126131

Laing, Lloyd Robert, Jennifer Laing: Britain's European Heritage: History Prehistory and Medieval History , ISBN= 0750904631.

Laing, Lloyd Robert, Jennifer Laing: The Picts and the Scots , ISBN= 0862998859. An account of the native people of what is now Scotland, the Dalriada invaders from Ireland, their conflict and eventual merging to fight against the Roman occupiers and the Anglo- Saxons.

Laing, Lloyd Robert, Jennifer Laing: Anglo-Saxon England (Britain Before the Conquest) , ISBN= 0684161729.

Laing, Lloyd Robert, Jennifer Laing:Orkney and Shetland: an Archaeological Guide , ISBN= 0715363050.

Larrington, Carolyne: A Store of Common Sense: Gnomic Theme and Style in Old Icelandic and Old English Wisdom Poetry, ISBN= 0198119828.. A comparative study in English of Old Icelandic and Old English wisdom poetry..Larrington analyses the differences between the pagan wisdom of Norse, ranging through everyday practical advice, rune magic, and spells, and the Christian, socially oriented ideals of Old English wisdom poetry, strongly rooted in Christian concepts of 'natural' orderß.

Larson, Laurence Marcellus: Canute the Great, 995 (Circ-1035, and the Rise of Danish Imperialism During the Viking Age.), ISBN= 0404038794.

Larson, Laurence Marcellus: The King's Household in England before the Norman Conquest: , ISBN= 0837118050.

Lehmann, Winfred P.: Historical Linguistics, New York: Holt, Rinehartand Winston, 1973

Lena Thunmark-Nylen: Bibliography for the Viking age of Gotland, ISBN= 9171925694.

Lerche, Grith: Ploughing Implements and Tillage Practices in Denmark from the Viking Period to about 1800. ISBN= 8774683888.

Lethbridge, T.C.: Gogmagog: the Buried Gods, London, 1957

Lewis, I.M. Ecstatic Religion: A Study of Shamanism and Spirit Possession.. ISBN:= 0415007992.

Lindholm, D.: Stave Churches in Norway, Rudolf Steiner Press, London 1966

Lindow, John: Viking Ships, ISBN=0883880784.

Lonnrot, Elias(ed), Keith Bosley (tr) :The Kalevala , ISBN= 019283570X. The Kalevala is the 19th century compilation, a non-rhyming epic poem with roots in prehistoric oral tradition. Created only 150 years ago as the tradition was dying out, it presents a rare portrait of an ancient people in both war and peace

Loyn, H.R.: The Vikings in Britain, ISBN=0312846711. Loyne is Professor of Medieval History, University College, Cardif

MacDonald, Fiona, and Mark Bergin (Illustrator): A Viking Town (Inside Story), ISBN= 0872263827.

Magnusson, Magnus : Tales from Viking Times/Audio Cassettes/7083, ISBN= 0886460654.

Magnusson, Magnus : Viking Expansion Westwards, ISBN= 0809835290.

Magnusson, Magnu: Viking Hammer of the North, Orbis, London, 1976

Magnusson, Magnus: BBC Classics: Vikings!, ISBN=056336453x. Excellent color photographs. Lengthy bibliography.

Magnusson, Magnus and Werner Forman: Viking, Orbis, London, 1979

Mallet, M. (tr. Percy, Bishop): Malet's Northern Antiquities, London, 1902

Mallory, J.P.: In Search of the Indo-Europeans: Language, Archaeology and Myth, Thames and Hudson, London, 1989. This survey of the whole spectrum of Indo-European studies is essential to understanding the roots of Teutonic thought and society.

J.G. Marcus: The Conquest of the North Atlantic. ISBN= 0851151582

Margeson, Susan M, and Peter Anderson (Illustrator):: Dorling-Kindersley: Eyewitness: Viking, ISBN= 078946599X.. One of the Eyewitness series of books designed for children, with lots of good illustrations of artwork, brooches, weapons, Bluetooth's monuments, etc.

Markdale, Jean: Women of the Celts, ISBN=0892811501

Marsden, John: The Fury of the Northmen : Saints, Shrines and Sea-Raiders in the Viking Age A.D. 793-878, ISBN=1856262367.

Martell, Hazel Mary: Everyday Life in Viking Times (Clues to the Past), ISBN=0531142876.

Mason, Antony: Viking Times (If You Were There), ISBN= 0689811985.

Matthews, Rupert: Viking Explorers (Beginning History Series), ISBN= 0531183467.

Mayani, Zacharie: The Etruscans begin To Speak, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1961

McBride, Angus: Warlords: Ancient-Celtic-Medieval, ISBN = 1854094440

McClough, T. H. McK.: Anglo-Saxon and Viking Leicestershire, ISBN= 0904671208.

Meehan, Aidan: Celtic Design : The Dragon and the Griffin : The Viking Impact, ISBN= 0500277923.

Megaw, J.V.S.: Art of the European Iron Age, Bath, 1970

Moberg, Vilhelm: A history of the Swedish People: from Renaissance to Revolution, ISBN=0880293128

Moberg, Vilhelm: A history of the Swedish People,:Part II, ISBN= 0434473014

Morley, Jacqeline, and Mark Bergin (Illustrator) : Viking Facts of Life (Facts of Life), ISBN= 0750019182.

Morley, Jacqueline, et al: How Would You Survive As a Viking?, ISBN= 0531143449.

Morris, Christopher, et al: The Viking Age in Caithness, Orkney, and the North Atlantic, ISBN= 0748606327.

Morris, Katherine: Sorceress or Witch, ISBN= 0819182567. The Image of Gender in Medieval Iceland and Northern Europe.

Morrison, Ian: The North Sea Earls, ISBN= 0856140287. The Shetland/Viking Archaeological Expedition .

Moss, Joyce, George Wilson: Profiles in World History : Significant Events and the People Who Shaped Them : Experimenting With Governments to Viking Invasion of Britain Vol 2, ISBN= 0787604666.

Murray, Hilary: Viking and Early Medieval Buildings in Dublin, ISBN= 0860542351. A study of the buildings excavated in High Street, Winetavern Street and Christchurch Place, Dublin, 1962-63, 1967-76.

Museum Publications British: Viking Ship, ISBN= 0714116742.

National Maritime Museum: From Viking Ship to Victory, ISBN= 0118807595

Neerso, Niels: A Viking Ship, 1987, ISBN= 0919519938.

Nerman, Birger : The Poetic Edda in the Light of Archaeology (Extre Series / Viking Society, V.4), , ISBN= 0404600247.

Newark, Tim: Celtic Warriors 400 BC-1600 AD, ISBN= 0713720433

Newark, Tim: The Barbarians, ISBN= 071371462X

Norlie, Alaf M.:History of the Norwegian People in America (Amer History and Americana No. 47), ISBN= 0838314368.

Norlund: Viking Settlers in Greenland and Their Descendants, ISBN= 0527676004.

North, Richard: Pagan Words and Christian Meanings (Costerus New Series, Vol 81), ISBN= 9051833059.

Nylen, Eric; Jan Peder Lamm: Stones, Ships, and Symbols, ISBN= 9178441161. The picture stones of Gotland from the Viking Age and before.

O'Meadhra, Uaininn : Early Christian, Viking and Romanesque Art from Ireland, ISBN= 9122002707.

Page, R.I.: Chronicles of the Vikings: Records, Memorials and Myths.. ISBN= 0802071651. Page lets the Vikings speak for themselves with new translations from primary sources such as runic inscriptions, poems by official skalds, literary works, the few prose historical accounts not by their enemies, and eyewitness accounts of how they lived. Chapters examine their homelands and peoples, settlements and land holding, heroic and unheroic lives, law, myth and religion, and other aspects. Highly recommended.

Partinton, S.W.: Danes in Lancashire. ISBN= 0859720004

Pennick, Nigel: Ancient Hill Figures of England. ISBN= 0905376005.

Pennick, Nigel: Lost Lands and Sunken Cities, ISBN= 1870021010

Pennick, Nigel: Secret Games of the Gods: Ancient Ritual Systems in Board Games. ISBN= 0880795891.

Philpott, Fiona: A Silver Saga Viking Treasure from the Northwest, ISBN= 0906367417. This book commemorates the discovery of one of the largest hoards of Viking silver ever found in England. With over 60 color photographs in this lavishly illustrated beautiful book, it gives the reader a great insight about the lives and culture of the Vikings. This book also includes a complete list of Viking exhibits throughout northwest Europe. This chronicles the detail of the fine Nordic jewelry crafters of the Viking age.

Pierce, Ian G. Swords of the Viking Age ISBN=0851159141. Where possible, a full-length photograph and photographs of details have been included for each example, with the illustrations and descriptions of most of the swords covering two facing pages.

Pohl, Frederick Julius: The Viking Settlements of North America, ISBN=0517507722. Excellent overview of the Viking voyages to America.

Pollington, Stephen: Ærgeweorc: Old English Verse and Prose, C40 audiotape. Anglo-Saxon Books, ISBN=1898281203. This audiotape cassette can be used with First Steps in Old English or just listened to for the sheer pleasure of hearing Old English spoken well. Tracks: 1. Deor. 2. BeowuIf - The Funeral of Scyld Scefing. 3. Engla Tocyme (The Arrival of the English). 4. Ines Domas. Two Extracts from the Laws of King Ine. 5. Deniga Hergung (The Danes' Harrying) Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Entry AD997. 6. Durham 7. The Ordeal (Be Æon Æe ordales weddigaß) 8. WiÆ Dweorh (Against a Dwarf) 9. WiÆ Wennum (Against Wens) 10. WiÆ Wæterælfadle (Against Waterelf Sickness) 11. The Nine Herbs Charm 12. Læcedomas (Leechdoms) 13. Beowulf's Greeting 14. The Battle of Brunanburh 15. Blacmon - by Adrian Pilgrim. Available from Anglo-Saxon Books, P.O.Box 30, Brandon, Suffolk IP26 4NP.Excellent, highly recommended.

Pollington, Stephen: First Steps in Old English: An easy to follow language course for the beginner, ISBN 189828119X. An Old English language course that contains all the exercises and texts needed to learn Old English. This course has been designed to be of help to a wide range of students, from those who are teaching themselves at home, to undergraduates who are learning Old English as part of their English degree course. The course includes many exercises designed to aid the learning process. A correspondence course is also available. Available from Anglo-Saxon Books, P.O.Box 30, Brandon, Suffolk IP26 4NP.

Pollington, Stephen: The English Warrior from earliest times to 1066. Anglo-Saxon Books, ISBN=1898281106. This book attempts to get below the surface of Anglo-Saxon warriorhood and to investigate the rites, social attitudes, mentality and mythology of the warfare of those times. Valuable appendices offer original translations of the three principal Old English military poems, the battles of Maldon, Finnsburh and Brunanburh. Available from Anglo-Saxon Books, P.O.Box 30, Brandon, Suffolk IP26 4NP.

Pollington, Stephen: The Warrior's Way : England in the Viking Age, ISBN=0713721200.

Poulsen, Grete S. "The Complementarity of Magic in Nordic Mythology and in Archaeological Sources." In: Words and Objects: Towards a Dialogue between Archaeology and History of Religion. ed. Gro Steinsland. Oslo: Norwegian University Press. 1986.

Powell, T.G.E.: The Celts (Rev. ed), Thames and Hudson, London, 1980

Pruneti, Luigi et al: Viking Explorers (Voyages of Discovery), ISBN= 0872264866.

Quennell, D.B.H.: Everyday Life in Roman and Anglo-Saxon Times, ISBN= 0713416750. All of the Everyday Life series are small-format hardbacks which describe various aspects of life (religion, politics, farming, warfare, economy, material culture, etc.) The series is highly recommended for children.

Randsborg, Klaavs: The Viking Age in Denmark, ISBN= 0312846509.

Ranke, Leopold Von: History of the Latin and Teutonic Nations, 1494-1514, ISBN= 0404092586.

Rees, Alwyn and Brinsley: Celtic Heritage, London, 1961

Renfrew , Colin : Archaeology and Language: the Puzzle of Indo-European Origins, Cambridge University Press, 1988. The basic thesis of this book is that Indo-european was the language of a wave of farming people who swept across Europe [whose economy was until then hunting- gathering] about 6000 BCE from out of Anatolia [modern Turkey] thru Greece. These people were for the most part peaceful and are the Old Europeans that Gimbutas writes about. About 3000 BCE some Indo-european tribes took up pastoralism [which depends upon agricultural societies for most of their subsistence] and moved east onto the Russian steppes. From there the tribes moved on into Central Asia, Iran and India. Then some of the tribes on the steppes moved back towards the west conquering the indigenous already Indo-european farming communities. The implications of this view is that Indo-european people are not the always war-like patriarchs of 19th century mythology and modern archeo-feminism. As within ancient Indo-european cultures there were a wide spectrum of social structures just as within the present Indo-european speaking societies.

Richards, Julian: Viking Age England, ISBN= 0781800943.

Ritchie, Anna : Viking Scotland, ISBN= 0713473169.

Erik the King, VHS tape,, ISBN= 6301619560.

Roesdahl, Else: The Vikings, ISBN: 0140125612. This introductory survey of the Vikings looks at their history, society and archaeology.

Roesdahl, Else Viking age Denmark, ISBN=0714180270.

Rosedahl, Else and David M. Wilson (eds): From Viking to Crusader, ISBN=0847816257. The Scandinavians and Europe 800-1200.

Ross, Anne: The Pagan Celts, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1986

Ross, Margaret Clunies (ed): Old Icelandic Literature and Society ISBN: 0521631122

Roggenkamp, Walther, Dan Lindholm/Walther : Stave Churches in Norway, ISBN= 0854402055.. "In the severe Norwegian landscape, on the ede of fjords, in the lonely valleys, or higher up overlooking the darkwoods , stand the last few remaining Stave Churches. Thgey oriiginated in the early eleventh century when King Olaf spread Christianity in Norway"

Savage, Anne: Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, Dorset, England, 1983

Sawyer, B.: Property and Inheritance in Viking Scandinavia: the runic evidence, Alingsås, 1988

Sawyer, Birgit and Peter Sawyer: Medieval Scandinavia: From Conversion to Reformation, circa 800-1500, ISBN 0816617392. The authors question asumptions about early Scandinavian history, including the supposed leading role of free and equal peasants and their position in founding churches. They trace the development of Scandinavia from the early ninth century through the second and third decades of the sixteenth century, when rulers of Scandinavia rejected the authority of the Papacy and the attempt to establish a united Scandinavian monarchy finally collapsed.

Sawyer , Peter (ed): The Oxford History of the Vikings (Oxford Illustrated , ISBN= 0192854348.

Saxo Grammaticus: Danorum Regum Heroumque Historia : Books X-XVI , ISBN=0860540979. The text of the first edition with translation and commentary in three volumes.

Scherman, Katharine: Iceland, Daughter of Fire, London, 1976

Schutz, Herbert: The Prehistory of Germanic Europe, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1983

Seeberg, Elizabeth S.: English-Norwegian, Norwegian-English Dictionary of Archaeology ., ISBN=8299177200. The archaeological terminology of Great Britain and the North up to and including the Anglo-Saxon period and the Viking Age; definitions in English with Norwegian synonymsd.

Seebohm, Frederic : Tribal Custom in Anglo-Saxon Law, Longmans, Green and Co, London, 1902

Sendle, Scott: Silbury Hill: The Mother Goddess Revealed. ISBN=1872543162. Built c.3,000 BCE and the largest man-made hill in Europe, it is a world enigma and sits amidst a cluster of Neolithic temple sites of immense proportion and grandeur. Silbury is part of a sacred cycle of proto-religion.

Shetelig, Haakon: Scandinavian Archaeology, 1937

Shetelig, Haakon, ed.: Viking Antiquities in Great Britain and Ireland, Oslo, 1954

Simpson, Jacqueline: The Viking World, 1980, ISBN=0312846592.

Simpson, Jacqueline. "Olaf Tryggvason versus the Powers of Darkness." In: The Witch Figure: Folklore Essays by a Group of Scholars in England Honouring the 75th Birthday of Katharine M. Briggs. SBN: 0710076967

Skaare, Kolbjorn: Coins and coinage in Viking-age Norway ISBN=8200015424.
The establishment of a national coinage in Norway in the XI century, with a survey of the preceding currency history.

Smith, Charles Hamilton: Ancient Costumes of Great Britain and Ireland: From the Druids to the Tudors, ISBN= 0517678829.

Smyth, Alfred P.Scandinavian York and Dublin : The History and Archaeology of Two Related Viking Kingdoms , ISBN=0716523655.

Statens Historiska Museum: Medieval Drinking Bowls of Silver Found in Sweden, ISBN=9174021214.

Steensberg, Axel : Borup, A.D. 700-1400 , ISBN=8748004472.
A deserted settlement and its fields in South Zealand, Denmark.

Steffensen, Jon. "Aspects of Life in Iceland in the Heathen Period." Saga-Book of the Viking Society. 17:2-3 (1967-1968)

Storms, Godfrid. Anglo-Saxon Magic. ISBN: 0841478422.

Strensen, Preben Meulengracht: The Unmanly Man, ISBN=8774924362.
Concepts of Sexual Defamation in Early Northern Society.

Stretton, Clement E.: Teutonic Art. Ancient Trade Guilds and Companies, Melton Mowbray Times Co, Melton Mowbray, 1909

Strom, F.: On the Sacred Origin of Germanic Death Penalties, 1942

Strom, Folke: Nid, Ergi, and the Old Norse Moral Attitudes, University College, London Viking Society for Northern Research, London, 1974, The Dorothea Coke Memborial Lectures in Northern Studies. 20p.

Strömbäck, Dag (tr. Peter G. Foote): The Conversion of Iceland, University College, London, 1975

Sturluson, Snorre: Edda : Part 1. ISBN=0198111746.

Sturluson, Snorri: Olof Saga: Heimskringla Vol 1., Biblio Distr, Lanham, MD, 1964 reprint, ISBN=0460007173

Sturluson, Snorri: Olof Saga: Heimskringla Vol.2, Biblio Distr, Lanham, MD, 1964 reprint, ISBN=04600072-XI

Sturluson, Snorri (Anthony Faulkes, tr.: Edda. ISBN= 0460876163.
This is the basic Prose Edda. This edition is particularly useful because it includes the entirety of the sections on poetic composition, which many editions leave out.

Sturluson, Snorri (Dasent, G.W. tr.): The Prose Edda, London, 1842

Sturluson, Snorri (Erling Mondsen, A.H.Smith eds.,trs.): Heimskringla or the Lives of the Norse Kings, Dover Publications, New York, 1990

Sturluson, Snorri (Jean I. Young, tr.): Prose Edda, University of California Press, Berkley, 1972, ISBN=0520012321. Basic mythology, one of the greatest works of Norse literature and mythology. Sturlson ws a twelfth-century Christian writer who had sympathy with the material of the myths, though it is unlikely that they were anything more than fables to him.

Sturluson, Snorri (Lee Hollander, tr.): Heimskringla, the History of the Kings of Norway, ISBN 0292730616 . A book giving the history of the kings of Norway from the earliest (mythological) times to 1177. This is a marginal item, as it treats mostly of Christian times, but it does have a lot of useful information in it for the dedicated.

Sturluson, Snorri : Heimskringla, or the Lives of the Norse Kings, ISBN: 0486263665.

Sturluson, Snorri (Magnusson, Magnus and Hermann Palsson, tr): King Harald's Saga, ISBN=0140441832. From the Heimskringla of Snorri Sturlesson.

Sturluson, Snorri: Heimskringa, Sagas of the Norse Kings, ISBN: 0404146074 .

Tacitus, Cornelius (H. Mattingly, tr.): Tacitus: the Agricola and the Germania., ISBN 0140442413. Tacitus presents a Roman view of the Germanic peoples at the dawn of the present era. This book is essential for the understanding of the Germanic peoples at the dawn of history. Though it needs to be treated with caution, this is the longest of accounts on Germanic tribes, their customs, and their religious practices. Chapter 10 of Germania discusses the usage of runes for divination or other magickal purposes.

Thirslund, Sten: The Viking Compass Guided Norsemen First to America, ISBN= 8798407902.

Thom, Alexander: Megalithic Lunar Observatories , Oxford, 1971

Thom, Alexander: Megalithic Sites in Brittain, Oxford, 1967

Thomas, Charles: Celtic Britain, Thames and Hudson, London, 1986

Thorvildsen, Knud: The Viking Ship of Ladby, ISBN=8748065811.

Todd, Malcolm: Everyday Life of the Barbarians, ISBN=0880291761. All of the Everyday Life series are small-format hardbacks which describe various aspects of life (religion, politics, farming, warfare, economy, material culture, etc.) The series is highly recommended for children

Todd, Malcolm: The Northern Barbarians: 100 BC-AD 300, ISBN= 0631151613

Trevelyan, Corbyn: The Lost Tribes of Europe, Vol 1.. ISBN: 1872543650. What became of the Goths, Huns, Vandals etc? Who are the living representatives of our Neolithic and Bronze Age folk? Did civilisation emerge from the North?

Trotzig, Gustaf: ÞCraftsmanship and Function : Sweden, ISBN=9171928170.
A study of metal vessels found in Viking Age tombs on the Island of Gotland.

Turville-Petre, E.O.G.: The Heroic Age of Scandiavia: London, 1951

Tweddle, Dominic , Angus McBride (Illustrator): Growing Up in Viking Times, ISBN= 0816727260.

Undset, Sigrid and Tiina Nunnally (Tr): Kristin Lavransdatter : The Wreath (Penguin Twentieth-Century Classics) Vol 1. ISBN=0141180412. While this is a piece of fiction it does an eloquent job of describing the medieval Scandinavian period.

Valfels, Sigrid: Old Icelandic, an Introductory Course, ISBN= 019811172X. This is an excellent introduction to Old Norse, with quite modern approach to the linguistic aspects. It would be especially comfortable to those with a computer orientation, since it explains grammatical runes more or less like a computer manual.

Vince , A.G.: Pre-Viking Lindsey, City of Lincoln Archaeology Unit: .ISBN= 0951498770.
Excavations and antiquities in Lindsey County, England

Volkoff, Vladimir : Vladimir the Russian Viking. ISBN= 0907855024.

von Erhardt-Siebold, Erika. "The Old English Loom Riddles." In: Philologica: the Malone Anniversary Studies. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins. 1949.

Wahlgren, Erik: The Vikings and America, ISBN= 0500021090. A good summary of the existing evidence of Norse expeditions to the North American continent, and speculations why the Vikings eventually left.

Wallace, Patrick F.:The Viking Age Buildings of Dublin, ISBN= 1874045011.

Waterman, John T.: A History of the German Language, University of Washington Press, Seattle, 1966

Williams, Mary Wilhelmem: Social Scandinavia in the Viking Age, ISBN=0527969605

Williamson, George C.: Curious Survivals: Habits and Customs of the Past that still live in the Present, London, 1975

Wilson, David M.: The Viking Age in the Isle of Man, ISBN=8774920960.

Wilson, David M.: The Vikings and their Origins, ISBN=0500250707

Wilson, David M. (ed.): The Northern World, Thames and Hudson, London, 1980

Wilson, Thomas: Swastika the Earliest Known Symbol and its Migrations, ISBN= 076610818X.

Wingate, Philippa: The Viking World (Usborne Illustrated World History). ISBN= 0746013981.

Wise, Terence: Saxon, Viking and Norman. ISBN= 0850453011.

Wood, Michael: In Search of the Dark Ages, BBC, London, 1981; Facts on File Publications, New York, 1987. A popular history of thr rulers of England, including Boadicea, King Arthur, the Sutton Hoo Man, Offa, Alfred the Great, Athelstan, Eric Bloodaxe, Ethelred the Unready, and William the Conqueror.

Wood-Martin, W.G.: Pagan Ireland, London, 1895

Wood-Martin, W.G.: Traces of the Elder Faiths of Ireland, London, 1902

Worsaae, Jens Jacob Asmussen: Viking Ireland, ISBN= 1874012121.

Jens Worsaae's accounts of his visit to Ireland, 1846-47.

Yarwood, Doreen: Encyclopedia of World Costume, Bonanza, New York, 1986

Zoega, Geir T.: A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic. ISBN= 0198631081. Convenient and simple Old Icelandic to English dictionary with grammatical appendix. Suitable for most texts but a little inadequate for the Poetic Edda.


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